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The department offers a gamut of psychological services aimed at better understanding human behaviour and enhancing individual skills to cope and better deal with the daily stressors of life. Experienced psychologists, through the process of psychotherapy, provides an insight to one’s personality and guide them to become better person. The department offers marriage counselling, career counselling, psychotherapy for anxiety, panic attacks, phobias, depression, low self esteem, obsessive compulsive disorder, addiction. The department also deals with children and their related developmental issues.  It also offers psychological and neurological assessment to have a more accurate understanding of the client’s issues and develop effective treatment plan.

How about clarifying all your concerns !!!



Is there a delay in your young one in achieving the milestones?

Is your child struggling to socialize?

Is it that your child is inattentive and runs all over the place?

Is your child an adolescent? Feeling confused, temperamental, locked up?


Are there too many quarrels with your spouse these days?

Do you feel low in confidence?

You are not able to put your point, and always feel led down?

Do you feeling depressed and lonely?

Do you feel discontented with your marital and sexual life?

Infidelity and its coping!!

Struggling between demands of work and commitments at home!!



Do you feel lonely and sad?

Are you not able to avoid smoking or drinking?

Are you scared of closed places, public speaking, crowded areas?

Do you feel your performance at work is affected due to your emotional state?

Do you feel lost most of the time and difficulty concentrating in work?


Suffering from severe back pain, but all tests shows normal results?

Are you catching cold too often though taking all the precautions?

Your bowel system giving trouble too often!!

Are getting skin rashes and pimples, but don’t know why?

Unable to find reason for respiratory ailments, gastrointestinal disturbances!

Tired of frequent migraines’ and tension headaches!!





Mastalgia or Breast pain

Dr.Sabaretnam.M Consultant Endocrine and breast surgeon
Cyclical breast pain Non-cyclical breast pain Approach Treatment
Breast pain (mastalgia) is the most common breast related complaint among women. Almost 80% of women experience pain in the breast/axilla, during there lifetime. But only 10 to 20% need treatment. Though 90% of breast pain is not due to breast cancer the woman should consult in the event of breast pain.
There are two main types of breast pain:
• Cyclical
• Non-cyclical
Cyclical breast pain :
This type of pain has characteristic features, which varies from one woman to other, and is individualised. Typically there is feeling of heaviness in breast mostly bilateral (though patient may feel more pain in one breast than opposite), usually diffuse starts just before menstrual cycle or exaggerated if already continuous pain is present. Increase in pain is present during the period for 2-5 days and then subsides with end of cycle. The cause of this premenstrual pain is due to hormonal (estrogen and progesterone), Mediated water retention in the breast tissue and distension of the ducts and glands within breast. This pain may be associated with feeling of swelling or lumpiness, then it is termed as fibrocystic disease. This pain subsides after menopause. Though the pain is due to hormonal changes, many factors like stress, weight gain, diet and life style determine the pattern of pain particular person, which can only be clarified by monitoring pain chart monthly and treating the individual accordingly after ruling out cancer.
Non-cyclical breast pain :
This is a less common type of pain which may occur due to causes within breast or outside. Usually seen in middle or elderly women. It may also occur in younger women with history o f injury, operation on breast. This is typically localised to one part of breast and patient can often pinpoint the site. It may be tender to touch. It is not due to hormonal changes except in few postmenopausal women tking hormonal replacement therapy. It is not influenced by pattern of menstrual cycles and may persistent. A special and common type of Non-cyclical breast pain is Tietz syndrome (Costochondritis), due to inflammation (Arthritis), of Costochondral junction (junction of rib with cartilage), occuring >40 years. This pain is actually outside breast but is felt through breast. The other causes are increasing age, osteoporosis, poor posture, ill-fitting bra, biopsy and old trauma to chest.
Approach :
Once a woman is suffering from persistent breast pain she should consult a physician, who will evaluate the pain by detailed clinical history and examination, followed by mammography&/or ultrasonography supplemented by biopsy if needed, all these methods used according to the findings and need. After diagnosing and once breast cancer is excluded, the appropriate treatment is instituted after discussing with the patient.
Treatment :
Most of the women don’t need any specific treatment the form of drugs or surgery. Nearly 70% of women can controlled with reassurance and life style modification. Usually a step by step approach with increasing complexity is used depending on motivation and response of the women.
Re assurance –> Pain chart and life style modification -> Mild analgesics -> Primrose oil, Vitamin E
The reassurance includes explaining the woman that the pain is not due to cancer or any surgical disease and is a benign condition without harm to life. Then motivating her to mark the severity and timing of pain on pain chart daily 3 times. This is red by the physician and advises the appropriate measures.
Minor life style modifications include:
• Avoiding excess weight gain
• Avoiding excess fat in diet
• Avoiding smoking and alcohol intake
• More of fresh fruits and vegetables with high vitamin content
• Avoiding excess coffee and chocolates
• Reducing high salt intake in diet
• Occasional use of analgesics.
All these measures help in red uction of pain score in most of the patients. If it is still persistent then primerose oil is advised. Some physicians advie vitamin E and its role is doubtful. With reassurance, pain charting, adjustments in diet and habits most women respond.
If still pain is persistent then, prescription of medication is thought off. The breast pain is mostly influenced by psychology of the person. There is low threshold for prescription of the drugs, as the benefit with many drugs available for breast pain are marginal or temporary and are associated with many other serious side effects and are not cost effective for many women.



The theme for 2013 is High blood pressure

Things to remember-
• High blood pressure (hypertension) can lead to serious problems like heart attack, stroke or kidney disease.
• High blood pressure usually does not have any symptoms, so you need to have your blood pressure checked regularly by your doctor.
• Making lifestyle changes is very important in helping to control high blood pressure. Ask your doctor for advice.

The risk of developing hypertension can be reduced by:
• Reducing salt intake
• Eating a balanced diet
• Avoiding harmful use of alcohol
• Regular physical activity
• Maintaining a healthy body weight
• Avoiding tobacco use
• Monitor your Blood Pressure & make regular Doctor’s appointments

World TB Day

24 March 2013
World TB Day is an opportunity to raise awareness about the burden of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide and the status of TB prevention and control efforts.
Some WHO TB Facts

• A third of the world population has TB infecion
• Globally, nearly 9 million people were suffering from TB in 2010
• There were about 1.5 million TB related deaths worldwide in 2010.
• In 2011, there were an estimated 8.7 million new cases of TB & 1.4 million people died from TB.
• TB is among the top three causes of death for women aged 15 to 44.
• There were an estimated 0.5 million cases and 64 000 deaths among children in 2011.
• TB is a leading cause of death in patients infected with HIV

Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in India. India accounts for one-fifth of the global TB incident cases. Each year nearly 2 million people in India develop TB, of which around 0.87 million are infectious cases. It is estimated that annually around 330,000 Indians die due to TB.

Stop TB in My Lifetime
2013 is the second year of a two-year campaign for World TB Day, with the slogan “Stop TB in My Lifetime”.
What is tuberculosis?
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by bacteria whose scientific name is Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
How Tuberculosis Spreads?

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that spreads through air like the common cold. When people who are sick with TB in their lungs cough, sneeze, spit or talk, the TB germs spread in the air and infect people who breathe in the germs. People who inhale the TB germs or bacilli may not immediately fall sick. The germs can lie dormant and when the person’s immune system is weakened the disease will surface. Other than the lungs, tuberculosis can also develop in lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, bone and joint areas, meninges (membranes covering the brain and spinal cord) and the lining outside the gastrointestinal tract.

How common is TB, and who gets it?
Anyone can get TB, but certain people are at higher risk, including
• People who live with individuals who have an active TB infection,
• Poor or homeless people,
• Foreign-born people from countries that have a high prevalence of TB,
• Alcoholics and intravenous drug users,
• People with diabetes, certain cancers, and HIV infection (the AIDS virus),
• Health-care workers.
There is no strong evidence for a genetically determined (inherited) susceptibility for TB.
The primary stage of TB does not cause symptoms. When symptoms of pulmonary TB occur, they can include:
• Cough (usually with mucus)
• Coughing up blood
• Excessive sweating, especially at night
• Fatigue
• Fever
• Weight loss
Other symptoms that can occur:
• Breathing difficulty
• Chest pain
• Wheezing
Signs and tests
The doctor or nurse will perform a physical exam. This may show:
• Clubbing of the fingers or toes (in people with advanced disease)
• Swollen or tender lymph nodes in the neck or other areas
• Fluid around a lung (pleural effusion)
• Unusual breath sounds (crackles)
Tests may include:
• Complete Blood count with ESR
• Chest x-ray
• Tuberculin skin test (also called a PPD test)
• Sputum examination and cultures
• Chest CT scan
• Bronchoscopy
• Thoracentesis
• Biopsy of the affected tissue (rare)
• Interferon-gamma release blood test such as the QFT-Gold test to test for TB infection

Is there a vaccine against tuberculosis?
Bacille Calmette Guérin, also known as BCG, is a vaccine given throughout many parts of the world. It is derived from an atypical Mycobacterium but offers some protection from developing active tuberculosis, especially in infants and children.
This vaccine is given to revert severe manifestations of Tuberculosis.
The treatment for tuberculosis is a 6-9 month cycle. All you need to do is consult a medical expert. If you have symptoms, consult your doctor. Following the advised line of treatment under strict medical supervision is crucial to recovery.
Tuberculosis Dos and Don’ts
– Have 2 sputum examinations done if you have cough of three weeks or more. These tests are done free of cost at Government sputum microscopy centers.
– Take all the medicines for the full prescribed period on regular basis.
– Use handkerchief when coughing or sneezing.
– Spilt in spittoons containing house-hold germicides.
– Don’t avoid medical care if you have cough of three weeks or more
– Don’t rely only on X-ray for diagnosis of tuberculosis
– Don’t stop medicines before your physician discontinues them
– Don’t spit indiscriminately

WORLD CANCER DAY (4th February 2013)

Key facts

  • Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 7.6 million deaths (around 13% of all deaths) in 2008.
  • Lung, stomach, liver, colon and breast cancer cause the most cancer deaths each year.
  • The most frequent types of cancer differ between men and women.
  • About 30% of cancer deaths are due to the five leading behavioral and dietary risks: high body mass index, low fruit and vegetable intake, lack of physical activity, tobacco use, alcohol use.
  • Tobacco use is the most important risk factor for cancer causing 22% of global cancer deaths and 71% of global lung cancer deaths.
  • Cancer causing viral infections such as HBV/HCV and HPV are responsible for up to 20% of cancer deaths in low- and middle-income countries.
  • Deaths from cancer worldwide are projected to continue rising, with an estimated 13.1 million deaths in 2030 .

Cancer is a generic term for a large group of diseases that can affect any part of the body. Other terms used are malignant tumours and neoplasms. One defining feature of cancer is the rapid creation of abnormal cells that grow beyond their usual boundaries, and which can then invade adjoining parts of the body and spread to other organs. This process is referred to as metastasis. Metastases are the major cause of death from cancer.

The problem

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and accounted for 7.6 million deaths (around 13% of all deaths) in 2008. The main types of cancer are:

  • lung (1.37 million deaths)
  • stomach (736 000 deaths)
  • liver (695 000 deaths)
  • colorectal (608 000 deaths)
  • breast (458 000 deaths)
  • cervical cancer (275 000 deaths) (3).

About 70% of all cancer deaths occurred in low- and middle-income countries. Deaths from cancer worldwide are projected to continue to rise to over 13.1 million in 2030.



Risk factors for cancers

Tobacco use, alcohol use, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity are the main cancer risk factors worldwide. Chronic infections from hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and some types of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) are leading risk factors for cancer.

How can the burden of cancer be reduced?

Knowledge about the causes of cancer, and interventions to prevent and manage the disease is extensive. Cancer can be reduced and controlled by implementing evidence-based strategies for cancer prevention, early detection of cancer and management of patients with cancer. Many cancers have a high chance of cure if detected early and treated adequately.

Modifying and avoiding risk factors

More than 30% of cancer deaths could be prevented by modifying or avoiding key risk factors, including:

  • tobacco use
  • being overweight or obese
  • unhealthy diet with low fruit and vegetable intake
  • lack of physical activity
  • alcohol use
  • sexually transmitted HPV-infection
  • urban air pollution
  • indoor smoke from household use of solid fuels.

Prevention strategies

  • Increase avoidance of the risk factors listed above.
  • Vaccinate against human papilloma virus (HPV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV).
  • Control occupational hazards.
  • Reduce exposure to sunlight.

Early detection

Cancer mortality can be reduced if cases are detected and treated early. There are two components of early detection efforts:

Early diagnosis

The awareness of early signs and symptoms (for cancer types such as cervical, breast colorectal and oral) in order to get them diagnosed and treated early before the disease becomes advanced, but the majority of patients are diagnosed in very late stages and where there is no screening.

Cancer Markers-

  • CA-125
  • Alpha Feto-Protein (AFP)
  • Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA)
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)


Examples of screening methods are:

  • visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) for cervical cancer in low-resource settings;
  • PAP test for cervical cancer in middle- and high-income settings;
  • Mammography screening for breast cancer in high-income settings.


Cancer treatment requires a careful selection of one or more intervention, such as surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. The goal is to cure the disease or considerably prolong life while improving the patient’s quality of life. Cancer diagnosis and treatment is complemented by psychological support.

Treatment of early detectable cancers

Some of the most common cancer types, such as breast cancer, cervical cancer, oral cancer and colorectal cancer have higher cure rates when detected early and treated according to best practices.

Treatment of other cancers with potential for cure

Some cancer types, even though disseminated, such as leukemias and lymphomas in children, and testicular seminoma, have high cure rates if appropriate treatment is provided.



Regular Blood Sugar Testing takes care of my diabetes so that I can take care of my family
What is blood Sugar testing?
Glucose is a type of sugar that is found in your blood. Blood sugar (glucose) testing is a part of diabetes care. A blood sugar test tells you exactly how much sugar is present in your blood at any point of time. Many things affect your blood sugar levels each day. Self –monitoring blood sugar (glucose) testing can let you know if your meal plan, medication and exercise are working to keep your blood sugar in good control.

Who should test their own blood sugar?
A test you do yourself is called a self-test. If you have diabetes, it helps to do a blood sugar test with a blood glucose meter. Diabetes changes the way your body controls blood sugar levels.

How can blood sugar self-testing help me?
You and your doctor have set up a plan to help you manage your blood sugar. One of the best ways to be sure if your plan is working, is to test your blood sugar level yourself. Research shows that good control of blood sugar can lower the risk of eye disease, Kidney disease and nerve damage that can develop due to diabetes. It helps you answer questions like, “What happens to my blood sugar during times of stress or illness?’” or “What happens to my blood sugar when I exercise?” Self-testing can help you take better care of yourself.

How often should I test my blood sugar?
The more you test, the more you will know about your blood sugar control. Many things such as eating, exercise, medication, illness and stress affect your blood sugar each day. So it is important to test your blood sugar at different times of the day. Research shows that testing blood sugar daily, up to 4 times a day or more, is a good way to learn how to control your blood sugar may help you lower your risk of problems with diabetes in the future. Self-testing gives you the information you need to avoid fluctuation of blood sugar levels on day to day basis. Your doctor can help you decide how often to test.

When should I test my blood sugar?
Your doctor will also help you decide when to test. Testing at different times is a good idea. Here are some useful times to choose from:
• Before breakfast – this is called pre-prandial blood sugar test
• 1-2 Hours after breakfast – this is called postprandial blood sugar test
• Before lunch
• 1-2 hours after lunch
• Before dinner
• 1-2 hours after dinner
• Before bedtime
• At 2:00 am or 3:00 am

If you take Insulin, it is a good idea to do extra tests when:
• There are changes in your treatment plan
• You start a new medication or diabetes
• You think your blood sugar might be too low or high
• You are ill
How do I make sense of different blood sugar levels at different times?
Blood sugar levels after 1-2 hours of eating are called postprandial. Research shows that blood sugar levels in people with diabetes can more than double after eating, even when their blood sugar before eating is normal. It is helpful to consult your doctor about fasting and postprandial sugar goals.

Blood Sugar testing goals:
• My fasting goal is less than 100
• My postprandial goal is less than 140
• My bedtime goal is less than 160

Do I really need to keep records?
Yes, keep a written record (logbook) of your blood sugar readings. Today, most blood glucose meters have a memory. You can download the memory into a special computer program. Also, write down the date and time and whether the self-test was done before or after eating. Other information about diet, exercise, medication or how you are feeling is useful. Always bring your record book when you visit your doctor. Together, you can look for patterns in your blood sugar readings. These patterns will help you decide whether you need to adjust your plan.

What can I do to improve my self-testing?
Follow the directions that come with the meter that you are using. Talk to your healthcare team about your meter and the way to do the test. The following tips may help you achieve accurate results:
• Keep your meter clean
• Keep your testing supplies at room temperature
• Check the expiry date of your strips
• Make sure your meter is properly coded to the test strips you are using
• Wash your hands in warm, soapy water and dry them well
• Prick the side of your finger with a new lancet in a lancing device
• Get enough blood to apply to the test strip
• Record your results

World AIDS Day 2012

Theme – Getting to Zero

Facts about HIV –

  • More than 34 million people now live with HIV/AIDS.
  • 3.4 million of them are under the age of 15.
  • In 2011, an estimated 2.5 million people were newly infected with HIV.
  • 330,000 were under the age of 15.
  • Every day nearly 7,000 people contract HIV—nearly 300 every hour.
  • In 2011, 1.7 million people died from AIDS.
  • 230,000 of them were under the age of 15.
  • Since the beginning of the epidemic, more than 60 million people have contracted HIV and nearly 30 million have died of HIV-related causes.


HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the causative virus of AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). AIDS has no precedent in medical history. It was first widely recognised in 1981, although evidence of the virus was found in stored blood collected in 1959, and so it seems that it has been in existence for longer than was first thought. The virus primarily attacks the white blood cells (the T-lymphocytes or CD-4 cells) and macrophages of the body. These cells play a key role in maintaining a person’s immunity to disease. As a result, HIV infected people become susceptible to illnesses caused by the collapse of the body’s immune system.

Stages of infection

First 12 weeks

Some people develop an illness resembling an acute glandular fever-like illness within 6 weeks of infection. Symptoms include fever, headache, swollen glands, tiredness, aching joints and muscles, and a sore throat. However, most people will not feel unwell or develop any abnormality for years. Antibodies to HIV usually develop within 2 to 8 weeks, and almost always by 12 weeks. The 12 weeks after initial infection is called the “window period”, where a negative test does not necessarily indicate that a person is free of the virus and a follow-up test will be necessary. However, by the end of the window period virtually all infected people will have a positive blood test (i.e. they will test “seropositive” or “HIV-positive”). Developing an HIV-positive test is known as “seroconversion”.

After seroconversion

HIV-infected individuals can remain physically well for many years after initial infection. However, in general the virus slowly attacks the immune system and, at a critical point, the condition AIDS develops.

Within 5 years of infection, up to 30% of those individuals infected with HIV are likely to develop AIDS (i.e. severe conditions such as cancer and pneumonia). A proportion of people will develop less severe symptoms, such as persistent generalised lymphadenopathy (swollen glands), diarrhoea, fever, and weight loss.

How it is spread

There are only three significant routes of transmission for HIV:

  • From infected blood or blood products
  • From infected sexual fluids
  • From infected mother to baby during pregnancy and delivery (if a pregnant woman is HIV-positive, the baby has a one in 3 chance of being infected).

Testing & Counseling –

The HIV antibody test is the blood test that determines whether an individual has HIV antibodies. A positive test means that there are antibodies and that HIV has established itself in the body. As previously described, it can take as long as 3 months – the window period – for antibodies to be produced. A negative test can mean that either HIV is not present in the body, or that the body has not had sufficient time to respond to the virus by producing antibodies.

Pre-test counseling

It is important that people seeking testing have an opportunity to explore the issues that may confront them with either a positive or negative test result. Issues may include guarantees of confidentiality, the need for support, explanation of the test, personal issues (e.g. in relation to partners, insurance, safe sex practices, and safe drug use).

Four blood tests are available:

  1. Enzyme immuno-assay; Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (EIA; ELISA)
  2. Western blot (WB)
  3. Immunofluorescent assay (IFA)
  4. Radio-immunoprecipitation assay (RIPA)

Advantages of testing –

  • Access to appropriate treatments for HIV-positive individuals early in the infection can delay the onset of AIDS and prolong survival.
  • The detection of infection at an asymptomatic stage may avoid a range of severe physical and social complications that may occur when infection is detected in an emergency situation (e.g. an accident, in a hospital emergency room, or after admission to hospital with advanced disease).
  • A negative test result can relieve anxiety after perceived exposure to infection.
  • A positive result can encourage the practice of safe sex and safe drug use, preventing the spread of infection as well as protecting the infected person from other STDs, or different strains of HIV.
  • Widespread testing helps to determine the extent and distribution of infection, which in turn can assist in planning support and prevention strategies.

Treatment –

There are a wide range of medications that will slow the progression of HIV infection:

Antiretroviral therapy – zidovudine (Retrovir or AZT) is the most widely used and reduces mortality, illness, and the number of opportunistic infections when given in combination with other agents such as ddI or ddC.

The side-effects of zidovudine treatment can include anaemia, vomiting, insomnia, and myalgia (muscle pain). However, these side-effects are more common on high-dose regimes. The new low-dose regimes have fewer side-effects.

Many of the opportunistic infections that occur with AIDS can be treated with medications such as antibiotics, anti viral drugs (aciclovir), and anti malarial medications.


Free BMD Camp

BMD Camp


Osteoporosis is a condition that involves a reduction in bone mass. Thus the bones may become more fragile and more likely to break. Osteoporosis-related fractures commonly occur in the hip, spine and wrist.

Signs and symptoms

Osteoporosis itself has no symptoms; its main consequence is the increased risk of bone fractures. Osteoporotic fractures occur in situations where healthy people would not normally break a bone; they are therefore regarded as fragility fractures. Typical fragility fractures occur in the vertebral column, rib, hip and wrist.


Fractures are the most dangerous aspect of osteoporosis. Debilitating acute and chronic pain in the elderly is often attributed to fractures from osteoporosis and can lead to further disability and early mortality.These fractures may also be asymptomatic. The symptoms of a vertebral collapse (“compression fracture“) are sudden back pain, often with radiculopathic pain (shooting pain due to nerve root compression) and rarely with spinal cord compression or cauda equina syndrome. Multiple vertebral fractures lead to a stooped posture, loss of height, and chronic pain with resultant reduction in mobility.

Risk factors

Older postmenopausal women, individuals with low body weight, individuals who smoke , individual with certain disorders such as parathyroid and thyroid disease or on certain long-term medications such as steroids.



Bone mineral density test (BMD Test)

A bone mineral density (BMD) test measures how much calcium and other types of minerals are in an area of your bone.

This test helps your health care provider detect osteoporosis and predict your risk of bone fractures.

Who Should Have a BMD Test?

  • A postmenopausal woman under age 65 & men ages 50 – 70 who have risk factors such as :
  • A fracture in any man or woman over age 50
  • Chronic rheumatoid arthritis, chronic kidney disease, eating disorders
  • A history of hormone treatment for prostate or breast cancer
  • Significant loss of height
  • Smoking
  • Overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism) or taking high doses of thyroid hormone medication
  • Overactive parathyroid gland (hyperparathyroidism)
  • X-ray of the spine showing a fracture or bone loss
  • Taking corticosteroid medications (prednisone, methylprednisolone) every day for more than 3 months
  • Three or more drinks of alcohol per day on most days

How the Test Will Feel

The scan is painless. You will need to remain still during the test.

Why the Test is Performed

A BMD test is the only way to detect low bone density & diagnose osteoporosis. A bone density can :

  • Detect low bone density before a person breaks a bone
  • Predict a person’s chances of breaking a bone in the future
  • Confirm a diagnosis of osteoporosis when a person has already broken a bone
  • Determine whether a person’s bone density is increasing, decreasing or remaining stable
  • Monitor a person’s response to treatment.

Normal Results

The results of your test are usually reported as a “T score” and “Z score.”

  • The T score compares your bone density with that of healthy young women.
  • The Z score compares your bone density with that of other people of your age, gender, and race.

In either score, a negative number means you have thinner bones than the standard. The more negative the number, the higher your risk of a bone fracture.

A T score is within the normal range if it is -1.0 or above.